Concordance Search Form

Joan Luís Vives Digital Library

Concordances

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Concordance help

This form offers the search of concordances in a work. This service is addressed to Literature students and Humanities researches, which is very useful for the analysis of the use of certain words in a work by a certain author.

The search of concordances does not analyse all the work, some sections are left out of the analysis. These unanalysed sections are shown here:

  • 1. Title of the work.
  • 2. Author of the work.
  • 3. Notes written by the editor or the corrector.

The rest of the work is analysed to search concordances of the given word or expression. To achieve that, the proper values have to be set in the different fields of the form as detailed in the next sections:

Text search field

In this field, the words or expressions to be searched are set

How to build a correct search expressions

1. Words can be introdused directly. To specify more than a search, commas have to be introduced among the words or expressions:

hidalgo, don: Shows the occurrences of the words "hidalgo" and "don".

2. Wildcard character * has to be used to specify a sequence from 0 to n characters:

Señora*: Shows all the words beginning by "Señora".

*atas: Shows all the words ending by "-atas".

c*ción: Shows words beginning by "c-" and ending by "-ción".

n*ñ*: Shows words beginning by "n-", followed by a string, a "ñ" character and ending by another string.

3. As there are a number of wildcard characters (, *, ?, ...) quotes will have to be used to specify some of them as part of the search:

"Quijote de la Mancha,": Shows the occurrences of the string "Quijote de la Mancha,". As the search is quoted, "," is part of the search.

4.Wildcard characters can be quoted alone when they are part of the search:

Quijote de la Mancha",": Shows the occurrences of the string "Quijote de la Mancha,".

5. Wildcard character "?" represents a character:

niñ?: Shows the words beginning by "niñ-" followed by a character.

6. A group of characters can be specified placing them into brackets [...]:

Niñ[ao]: Shows words beginning by "niñ-" and ending by "-a" or "-o"

?[lñ]o: Shows the words that have as second character a "l" or a "ñ" and end by an "-o" character.

[a-z]: Shows the words with only a character alphabetically between the "a" and the "z".

[~a-z]: Shows the words that have only a character that is not alphabetically between the "a" and the "z".

[a-z,0-9]: Show words that have only a character alphabetically between the "a" and the "z" or between "0" and "9".

7. A vertical bar has to be used to obtain a sequence of words:

este |: Shows all the words preceded by the word "este".

8. Wildcard characters "&" and "~" are used to specify proximity patterns. The proximity is specified in the form field Post and reffers to the number of words between the first part of the expression and the second:

de & Toboso: Shows every time the word "de" appears near to a word beginning by "Toboso".

de ~ Mancha: Shows every time the word "Mancha" doesn't appear near the word "de".

9. Any of the previous expressions can be followed by one or more commands to refine the search:

- when:

carcel*;when speaker=PACO: Shows only words beginning by "carcel" when the speaker who says them is "PACO".

escudero;when speaker=R; when speaker=B.: Shows occurrences of the word "escudero", when are said by speaker "R" or speaker "B"

- caseSensitive

mancha*;caseSensitive: Shows words beginning by "mancha" matching the case.

- simil X%: Shows those words similar to the given pattern in more than a X%. To compute this similarity, the Longest Common Subsequence algorithm is used:

mancha;simil 80%: Shows those words similar to "mancha" at least in an 80%. eg: ancha, manca, mancha, manche, ...

- freq [<,>,=,!=,<>] 99: Shows words depending on the number of occurrences. After a word, (eg: "de*;freq 100") freq shows the words beginning by "de" and present 100 times in the work.

If freq doesn't have any text before (eg: ";freq 100") freq shows all the words present 100 times in the work.

To specify more than a range of number of occurrences use different freq commands, eg: ";freq < 100; freq>1000" shows those words present less than 100 times and more than 1000 times.

a*;freq > 500: Shows those words beginning by 'a' and present more than 500 veces.

Match case

When this checkbox is active, only the matching occurrences will be shown. This checkbox is unchecked by default.

Search mode (Show)

Once introduced the text or expression to search, the mode in which the occurrences will be shown has to be selected. There are four possible modes:

  • Keywords in Context
  • Variable Context
  • Distribution
  • Word List

Keywords in Context

Each word appears underscored in the middle of a small context. The vertical bar "|" represents different lines. This mode can show a big number of occurrences at in the same screen to have an idea of the use. Clicking over the occurrence links to the paragraph of the word where this occurrence appears to better study the occurrence.

Variable Context

Keywords in Context only shows a line, but sometimes a bigger context is wanted without having to go to the full work. In this case, the option Variable Context has to be selected.

The occurrences appear separated by lines. Clicking over the occurrence links to the paragraph of the word where this occurrence appears to better study the occurrence.

Distribution

This view presents a graphic showing how the occurrences of a word are distributed along the work. The graphic splits the work in 10 parts, and next to each part the number of occurrences in that part is shown

Word List

This view shows a list with the searched words and enclosed in parenthesis, the number of occurrences. To use this kind of view es useful to know how to search for expressions better that to specify single words. Clicking a word, the occurrences of that word in Keywords in Context view appear.

This kind of search sorts the results only by alphabetic order or by number of occurrences.

Search context

In this field is specified the number of elements to show before and after the occurrence, as well as the refered element. There are three posible values:

  • word
  • line
  • paragraph

If Show=Line, Prev=5 and Post=5 5 lines are shown before and after the occurrences found.

Show

In this field is specified the number of occurrences by page to be shown. The possible values are 10, 25, 50, 75 or 100.

Show by...

In this field is specied the order in with the occurrences have to be presented. The possible values are "Occurrence order", "Alphabetic order" u "Number of occurrences"

- Occurrence order: Shows the occurrences in the order they appear in the work

- Alphabetic order: Shows the occurrences in alphabetic order.

- Number of occurrences: Shows the occurrences sorted by its number.

When the "Alphabetic order" or the "Number of occurrences" sorting method is used, besides each occurrence, there is a link that searches that occurrence in all the available works of the Miguel de Cervantes Digital Library: eg:

When the word 'Noche' is searched and the occurrences are shown in alphabetic order, it will appear a link that searches the word 'Noche' in all the available works of the Miguel de Cervantes Digital Library

1-Showing 1-23 of 23 occurrences of the key 'noche': Search the word 'noche' in the library

Explanation of the results

Once a search has finished, a screen presents the result with differences depending of the kind of information shown:

  • Keywords in Context

    As many occurrences of the key to be searched are printed out as the specified in the field 'Show' (in this case 10). Each line shows the key and as many elements before and after as the specified in the fields 'Prev' and 'Post' (in this case 3 words before and 3 after). Besides, moving the mouse over the different parts of each entry, different information appears as it can be seen in this image.

    Occurrences of the key Quijote in Occurrence Order

    When a occurrence is clicked (in this case Quijote appears printed in red), there is a jump to the work published by the Miguel de Cervantes Digital Library and to the paragraph where the word is located:

    Palabra Quijote en Contexto

    When the results appear in alphabetic or number of occurrences order, each selected word is grouped and all its occurrences are printed out:

    Occurrences of the key mancha* in alphabetic order

    besides each occurrence, there is also a link that searches that occurrence in all the available works of the Miguel de Cervantes Digital Library

  • Variable Context

    It has almost the same features than 'Keywords in Context', but here break lines are printed out as present in the XML file containing the information about the work, these breaklines don't have to coincide with the final HTML available version.

  • Distribution

    As explained in the header of this page, the graphic shows how the occurrences of a word are distributed along the work. The graphic splits the work in 10 parts, and next to each part the number of occurrences in that part is shown

    Distribution of the word 'Quijote'
  • Word List

    This view shows only the words that match the searched expression, as well as the number of apparitions of each one between parenthesis:

    List of words beginning by mancha*

    Clicking a word, the occurrences of that word in Keywords in Context view appear.